Now when Jesus came into the district of Caesarea Philippi, he asked his disciples, “Who do people say that the Son of Man is?” And they said, “Some say John the Baptist, but others Elijah, and still others Jeremiah or one of the prophets.” He said to them, “But who do you say that I am?” Simon Peter answered, “You are the Messiah, the Son of the living God.” And Jesus answered him, “Blessed are you, Simon son of Jonah! For flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but my Father in heaven. And I tell you, you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not prevail against it. I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven.” Then he sternly ordered the disciples not to tell anyone that he was the Messiah.
Matthew 16:13-20 (NRSV)
I may be making a mistake biting off this entire passage for one post. On the other hand, I’d like to get through Matthew before I turn 80, so here we go!
Because of our theologizing, there’s one part of this narrative we tend to get wrong from the get go. Because we identify Jesus as “the Son of Man,” we read this passage as a contrast between who people in general say Jesus is and who Jesus’ disciples say that he is. But that’s not what Jesus is asking.
Jesus begins by asking his followers who people say the identity of the “Son of Man” is. The Son of Man, while sometimes just being a poetic designator for a human being, is an apocalyptic figure featuring most prominently in Daniel 7. Daniel has a vision of four, terrible empires in the form of beasts who rule the world, then the “Ancient of Days” sets up thrones, takes up rule, and destroys the empire who rules the world. But he doesn’t keep this rule all to himself:
I saw in the night visions,
and behold, with the clouds of heaven
there came one like a son of man,
and he came to the Ancient of Days
and was presented before him.
And to him was given dominion
and glory and a kingdom,
that all peoples, nations, and languages
should serve him;
his dominion is an everlasting dominion,
which shall not pass away,
and his kingdom one
that shall not be destroyed.
Daniel 7:13-14 (ESV)
Daniel 7 clearly identifies the “one like a son of man” as the “saints of the Most High” more than once. It’s neither the first nor the last time that faithful Israel is represented by a single figure in prophetic imagery.
At the same time, rabbinical commentary on the image points out that the use of the phrase “son of man” means that a human being will appear representative of these saints – the King Messiah. This is how the image is used in the Similitudes of Enoch and in 2 Esdras – a figure who is an individual who is the ruler and representative of the faithful.
Needless to say, people would have their views on who this person would be, and that’s what Jesus is asking in his initial question. “Who do people say the Son of Man is?” and he gets back a list of opinions that people have as to who this figure might turn out to be. Here, we can tell that Jesus is not asking who people say he is, because while we might be able to understand Jesus as a revisitation of Elijah or Jeremiah, it would be bizarre for people to be saying that Jesus is John the Baptist, since they were contemporaries.
However, Jesus probably intends to tie the “Son of Man” identity to himself with his follow-up question: “But who do you say that I am?” You’ve told me who people are saying the Son of Man might be; who do you think I am, while we’re on the subject?
In an uncharacteristically insightful move, Peter makes the connection right away. “YOU are the Messiah,” he says, identifying Jesus as the Son of Man. Jesus is the one to whom God will give rulership when God overthrows the fourth beast/empire. Jesus is the saint of the Most High par excellence whose exaltation will mean that the saints receive the kingdom. Matthew’s Gospel is full of this very theme.
Mark’s Gospel stops there, but Matthew includes the phrase “the Son of the living God.”
In Caesarea Philippi, where this story takes place, was a temple to Augustus that was built by Herod. Josephus records that Herod built three such temples, apparently in response to authority granted to Herod over regions that had been Parthian. These temples were built to worship Augustus as a living god. Much like the confession that, “Jesus is lord,” is a challenge to Caesar’s authority, so is this phrase in Peter’s confession. Augustus is not the living God; Israel’s God is the living God, and Jesus is His true Son. It’s a challenge both to Augustus’ divinity and the authority of Tiberias (and possibly Caligula) who would succeed him.
This probably explains why Jesus is very gratified by Peter’s confession but also keen to have everyone keep it to themselves. This has happened several times in Matthew’s Gospel, and I believe it makes sense that Jesus is trying to forestall premature persecution. If you go around first century Judea saying Jesus is the Son of Man of Jewish eschatological expectations and the Son of God in opposition to Roman authorities, you are inviting swift retribution. Both Jewish and Roman authorities would consider those claims blasphemous and treasonous, and both you and your disciples should be put down before your movement gets out of control. This is, in fact, what eventually happened.
Here is where Jesus calls Simon “Peter,” which is the Greek name for “rock,” and declares that Peter is the rock on which Jesus will build his church. I think it is highly unlikely that the “rock” Jesus refers to is Jesus himself or Peter’s confession – those are exegetical maneuvers largely designed to undermine the claims of the Roman Catholic church. We are quite fine recognizing that Jesus deliberately calls Simon “the rock” and says “upon this rock, I will build my church” without also accepting papal authority and attached claims. We ought not to let later controversies control our reading of Scripture.
But keeping in mind the narrative, the focus is on Peter being a steward in a time of crisis of what Jesus has begun to do. This time of crisis will involve persecution of the faithful in the near term, but Jesus is constantly thinking about the upcoming destruction of Jerusalem.
Our first indicator is Jesus calling Simon the “rock,” which is an Old Testament image commonly used for God’s protection of Israel in times of trouble. Deuteronomy 32, for instance, makes a great deal of this image, and verse 30 is one that I use in my prayers to this day: “How could one have routed a thousand, and two put a myriad to flight, unless their rock had sold them, the Lord had given them up?” Jesus has, in Matthew, already used this metaphor specifically to talk about believing and following him as a way to make it safely through the upcoming catastrophe about to befall Israel.
Our second indicator is the bit about the “gates of Hades.” A lot of theological hay has been made out of this portion of Jesus’ teaching, but the “gates of Hades” is an Old Testament image that simply means the proximity of death (just a couple out of several examples: Psalm 107:18 and Isaiah 38:10). Death is near to the faithful, but it will not “prevail” over the church. In other words, the faithful who follow Jesus won’t be overcome by the death that is so near them – the impending destruction of Jerusalem.
Our final indicator is Jesus giving the keys of the kingdom to Simon/Peter for opening and shutting the kingdom.
This image comes to us from Isaiah 22 where, lo and behold, Jerusalem is about to be destroyed. This impending destruction was supposed to bring about repentance in Israel, but instead, the people decided to wine and dine themselves in comfort.
I want to pause here, for a minute, to contrast this with Jonah and Nineveh. Jonah announces to Nineveh that God will destroy their city, and it produced nationwide repentance that averts their fate. Jesus has already contrasted Nineveh with the Israel of his day. It is possible this is why Jesus chooses to refer to Simon, here, as “son of Jonah.”
But getting back to Isaiah, in the midst of a Jerusalem that is about to destroyed and a people who refuse to repent, God rebukes Shebna who is the steward of Israel, saying that He will remove him from office (and uses a great image of God whirling around and throwing him away like a track and field hammer). In his place, God will do this:
On that day I will call my servant Eliakim son of Hilkiah, and will clothe him with your robe and bind your sash on him. I will commit your authority to his hand, and he shall be a father to the inhabitants of Jerusalem and to the house of Judah. I will place on his shoulder the key of the house of David; he shall open, and no one shall shut; he shall shut, and no one shall open. I will fasten him like a peg in a secure place, and he will become a throne of honor to his ancestral house.
Isaiah 22:20-23 (NRSV)
God will replace the unfaithful rulers with a faithful one who will have the authority of the house of David. However, all the sins of Israel will be laid on this servant, and the peg will fall, and Jerusalem will still be destroyed. This image of being able to open and shut with the authority of the house of David is specifically used to describe Jesus in Revelation 3:7.
Jesus, here, is granting Peter this authority. Jesus has arisen at a time of impending crisis for Jerusalem. Israel is largely unrepentant. The stewards are being replaced. Jesus will soon fall, bearing the weight of Israel’s sins, but he passes this stewardship of the faithful over to Peter.
John captures this sentiment in a different way:
When they had finished breakfast, Jesus said to Simon Peter, “Simon son of John, do you love me more than these?” He said to him, “Yes, Lord; you know that I love you.” Jesus said to him, “Feed my lambs.” A second time he said to him, “Simon son of John, do you love me?” He said to him, “Yes, Lord; you know that I love you.” Jesus said to him, “Tend my sheep.” He said to him the third time, “Simon son of John, do you love me?” Peter felt hurt because he said to him the third time, “Do you love me?” And he said to him, “Lord, you know everything; you know that I love you.” Jesus said to him, “Feed my sheep. Very truly, I tell you, when you were younger, you used to fasten your own belt and to go wherever you wished. But when you grow old, you will stretch out your hands, and someone else will fasten a belt around you and take you where you do not wish to go.” (He said this to indicate the kind of death by which he would glorify God.) After this he said to him, “Follow me.”
John 21:15-19 (NRSV)
And Peter, for his part, passes this stewardship to the faithful leaders of the early church:
Now as an elder myself and a witness of the sufferings of Christ, as well as one who shares in the glory to be revealed, I exhort the elders among you to tend the flock of God that is in your charge, exercising the oversight, not under compulsion but willingly, as God would have you do it—not for sordid gain but eagerly. Do not lord it over those in your charge, but be examples to the flock. And when the chief shepherd appears, you will win the crown of glory that never fades away.
1 Peter 5:1-4 (NRSV)
And this brings me to today.
God has replaced the corrupt leaders of His people with the Lord Jesus, who loves His people with a thoroughly self-sacrificial love – a great King who will put Himself between the sheep and the wolves to keep them safe in her time of crisis. And this King has commissioned apostles after Him to do the same, and they have commissioned elders after them to do the same.
There is still a church, there are still elders, and there are still crises.
And here we see in the cross a fundamental dynamic of what it means to have authority in the Kingdom of God – it means sacrificing your own life for the saving of the people under your authority.
See what a contrast this is with the degenerating leadership of Israel leading up to Roman occupation! Their leaders used their position for their own comfort and welfare, growing rich while the poor they should have been be caring for were deprived.
Jesus, by contrast, shows another way – a way that has God’s approval – a way of giving up your own life for the welfare of the people under your authority. Your authority has been given for their welfare, not yours. Their prosperity, not yours. If someone under your authority is struggling to pay their grocery bill and you are adding a wing to your house, God’s, to quote Johnny Cash, gonna cut you down.
Can you imagine the transformative power this dynamic would have for the church? Our families? Our corporations? Our nations? If leaders would look at their own comfort and prosperity and consider it a failure if their followers were suffering? If authority asked, “How can I use my power for the welfare of the people under me?”
At minimum, those who would be leaders in Christ’s church ought to have the same mind in them that was in Christ Jesus. What crises does the church face in our present day, and how can leadership safely bring us through those crises even at the expense of their own welfare? That is what it means to be a leader in the church. That is what it means to have the keys of the kingdom.
It isn’t your church, after all. It belongs to Jesus. You’re taking care of it for a time. What sort of accounting will you give of yourself when that time is up?
- What are the crises that face the church in the present age? What would it look like for leaders to respond to those crises in ways that ensured the welfare of the church?
- We confess that Jesus is Lord over the church. What does this look like, practically speaking? What impact does that lordship have in the present, lived-out experience of the church?